Bl6. L4.1. Obligations and negative modals

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В этом уроке мы будем говорить о нестандартном модальном глаголе have to, сможем выяснить разницу между must и have to. Есть ли разница между mustn't (не должен) и don't have to (не должен). Также будем говорить про особые случаи использования need и можно ли считать need и have to действительно модальными. I must but don't have to.

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Useful words:      

behaviorповедение

tuxedoсмокинг

intermissionантракт

assignedназначенное (присвоенное)

acceptableприемлемо

commenceначинается

requiresтребует

steerуправлять

ball gownбальное платье

lozengesледенцы

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Youwear a uniform in the school, this is a rule for everyone.

must
mustn't
should
shouldn't
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Youwear a suit at my wedding party.

must
mustn't
should
shouldn't
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Yougo to bed. You have an important test tomorrow.

must
mustn't
should
shouldn't
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Yoube quiet at the library.

must
mustn't
should
shouldn't
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You wear high heels in the country. It's a bad idea.

must
mustn't
should
shouldn't
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Youdrink alcohol when you’re driving.

must
mustn't
should
shouldn't
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Iqueue if I want to get this tuxedo. We need it.

must
mustn't
shouldn't
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Your girlfriend take part in that play. We’ll be happy to see her on the stage.

should
shouldn't
mustn't
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Shh! Webe silent on the exhibition!

must
mustn't
shouldn't
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Youwear a ball gown at this party. There’s no dress code. All women will be in the evening dresses.

should
shouldn't
must
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Joego to the party, they didn't invite him.

should
shouldn't
must
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Hecome before the performance commences, otherwise he won’t be able to come in.

otherwise – в противном случае
should
shouldn't
mustn't
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Childreneat a lot of lozenges to be healthy.

must
should
shouldn't
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behavior
смокинг
tuxedo
поведение
назначенное
антракт
приемлемо
assigned
intermission
acceptable
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Сhoose the correct translation.
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commence
требует
ball gown
начинается
requires
бальное платье
леденец
управлять
steer
lozenges
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Useful words:

media – средства массовой информации

a tabloid – таблоид

a talk show – разговорное шоу

watch (TV)смотреть (телевизор например)

breaking newsсрочные новости

a channel канал

a journalistжурналист

game showигровое шоу

series сериал

a headline заголовок

refuseотказаться

according toв соответствие

a magazineжурнал

a newspaperгазета

a headlinerзвезда, известный человек

an article статья

a  title of a programme название передачи

commercial реклама

teaserтизер

allow разрешать

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latest news
film with many episodes
advertisement
breaking news
a person who writes the news
commercial
a famous person
a journalist
serial
a headliner
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Отказ.

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Звезда, известный человек.

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Have to

Специальная форма глагола с частицей to have to имеет особое значение. Have to переводится как должен, обязан что-то знакомое правда? Так переводится и глагол must, вот только отличие между этими двумя глаголами есть, сейчас мы их разберем. Но сначала обозначим его особенности и отличия от основных модальных глаголов.

Следующий глагол идет всегда после частицы to:

  • I have to work with a headliner of our tabloid. – Я должна работать со звездой нашего таблоида.
  • We have to know the title of this programme. – Мы обязаны узнать название передачи.

Have может меняться в зависимости от времени, в котором стоит предложение. В Present Simple он может иметь формы (have, has), в Past Simple (had).

Для отрицания и вопросов необходимы вспомогательные глаголы соответствующих времен (don't, doesn't, didn't для отрицаний) и (do, does, did для вопросов).

  • I don't have to read the newspapers. – Я не обязан читать газеты. (Но я могу).
  • Does she have to change the headline? – Она обязана сменить заголовок?
  • He didn't have to wear a tuxedo. – Он был не обязан надевать смокинг. (Но он мог).
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Случаи использования

1) Have to мы используем когда говорим о действии, которое необходимо сделать, но на нас осуществляется некое внешнее давление, воздействие, которое имеет влияние.

  • You have to choose the headline according to the text of our article. – Ты должен выбрать заголовок в соответствии с текстом нашей статьи (заголовок и текст не должны расходиться).
  • You won't open the door. You have to take my key first. – Ты не откроешь дверь. Ты должен сначала взять мои ключи.

2) Наличие определенного обязательства. Мы вынуждены что-то сделать, так как есть обязательства. Это могут быть семейные, должностные, рабочие, договорные и другие обязательства. Чаще всего они многоразовые.

  • She has to use these papers on the talk show. – Она обязана использовать эти листочки для работы (только на этих листочках хранится необходимая информация для этого ток-шоу).
  • I have to finish an article to get more money. – Я вынужден закончить статью, чтобы получить больше денег.
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Ana can't go to the cinema. Shelook after her younger brother.

have to
has to
hasn't to
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Nickwatch a commercial. He can skip it.

have to
don't have to
doesn't have to
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Allana and Sophiabe there in time.

have to
has to
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Irefuse writing this article. I can't find enough information.

have to
don't have to
has to
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My brotherswitch off the TV when I do my homework.

have to
has to
doesn't have to
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My parents probably won't watch this game show. Theyvisit my grandparents.

have to
has to
don't have to
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Youbuy any magazines. You can find them on the Internet.

have to
don't have to
doesn't have to
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Carlaanswer to journalists. It can spoil her work.

have to
doesn't have to
has to
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Peoplewear well for the opera.

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I can't watch the new episode of my favorite series. Itidy up my room right now.

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Igo now. The journalist is waiting for me!

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This newspapertell the real name of authors, only nicknames.

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According to the contract Alisonwear glasses in the movie. They made her look more intelligent.

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Ido this task today. I can't refuse again.

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A headlinerhide from journalists. He doesn't want to see them.

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Markwrite article about this tabloid. He has a contract.

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I want to be a journalist in the future. Ibe more sociable and communicate more.

must
have to
has to
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According to the rules of my parents Ibe at home by eleven.

musts
have to
has to
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I talked with an author. A headlinebe interesting.

must
have to
has to
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My friendwatch movie teezers. He has a strange job.

must
have to
has to
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I can't find my newspaper. Ifind it now.

must
have to
has to
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Hewrite an article today. It will be in a newspaper on Sunday.

want
have to
has to
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Joanna is our headliner. Youmeet her. Go!

must
have to
has to
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I don't work at this magazine. Imove to another city.

must
have to
has to
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Yoube on this TV show. It's only for adults.

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My mother is a boss. Shego to work by eight o'clock. She arrives at ten am.

does not have to
musn't
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Weshout in the theatre.

mustn't
don't have to
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We have enough time. Wehurry.

doesn't have to
don't have to
must
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Iturn off the TV. My father allows me to watch this talk show.

don't have to
musn't
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Wewatch this series. We've already watched it.

don't have to
doesn't have to
musn't
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My little sisterswatch the TV all day. My parents don't allow them to do it.

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The plot of the series is a big secret. Wetell anybody!

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Jackfinish the article. It's his job as a journalist.

must
mustn't
has to
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Yousmoke here. It isn't allowed. You can have problems.

must
mustn't
has to
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Sammake a new commercial, It's his responsibility. He has no choice.

must
mustn't
has to
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Youwatch this film. It's amazing.

must
mustn't
have to
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Actorsbe late for theirs performances.

must
mustn't
don't have to
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Have to переводится как должен, обязан, и всегда употребляется с частицей to. Меняется по лицам (have/has) и времени (had). В отличии от must, не выражающее приказ и, а, скорее, обозначающее обязательство или внешнее влияние.

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Тизер – реклама, которая призвана заманить человека (например посмотреть фильм, или прочитать статью) изначально переводилась с английского как «дразнилка, завлекалка», но прижилось в русском языке только в своем современном значении.

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Bl6. L4.1. Obligations and negative modals
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